Mr. Sollars stated that James Mullone, of Springfield, told him as follows:—"I have been to Nauvoo, and seen Joe Smith, the Prophet: he had a gray horse, and I asked him where he got it; and Joe said, "You see that white cloud." "Yes." "Well, as it came along, I got the horse from that cloud." This is a fair specimen of the ten thousand foolish lies circulated by this generation to bring the truth and its advocates into disrepute.1In four years, we will arrive at the 200th Anniversary of the “First Vision”2—a momentous event that began a prolonged era of mendacity targeting Joseph Smith and the “Mormonites.” But being thus distanced from events, we seem to discount the all-out war that commenced in 1820. By doing so, many have been led into deception, unbelief, and false assumptions by the intensity of malignant focus upon Joseph. There has probably been no other in history who has been the subject of such protracted distortion, mockery, and maligning—except, the Savior himself.
After announcing the martyrdom of Joseph at the hands of a mob, a colleague wrote:
Joseph Smith, the Prophet and Seer of the Lord, has done more, save Jesus only, for the salvation of men in this world, than any other man that ever lived in it. In the short space of twenty years, he has brought forth the Book of Mormon, which he translated by the gift and power of God, and has been the means of publishing it on two continents; has sent the fulness of the everlasting gospel, which it contained, to the four quarters of the earth; has brought forth the revelations and commandments which compose this book of Doctrine and Covenants, and many other wise documents and instructions for the benefit of the children of men; gathered many thousands of the Latter-day Saints, founded a great city, and left a fame and name that cannot be slain. He lived great, and he died great in the eyes of God and his people; and like most of the Lord's anointed in ancient times, has sealed his mission and his works with his own blood; and so has his brother Hyrum. In life they were not divided, and in death they were not separated! (Doctrine and Covenants | Section 135:3)So, to sincere seekers of Truth, let us review some of the records of unrelenting hostilities that plagued Joseph Smith from 1820 to 1844.
"After having received many visits from the angels of God unfolding the majesty and glory of the events that should transpire in the last days, on the morning of the 22nd of September, A. D. 1827, the angel of the Lord delivered the records [engraved on gold plates] into my hands. * * * As soon as the news of this discovery was made known, false reports, misrepresentation and slander flew, as on the wings of the wind, in every direction; the house was frequently beset by mobs and evil designing persons. Several times I was shot at, and very narrowly escaped, and every device was made use of to get the plates away from me; but the power and blessing of God attended me, and several began to believe my testimony."3These are only a few of the descriptions of the times of Joseph Smith, so to give credence to any of the “proofs” against Joseph that were generated in this setting of intense hostility and prejudice is to be naïve at best and complicit at worst.
About this time a spirit of persecution began again to manifest itself against us in the neighborhood where I now resided, which was commenced by a man of the Methodist persuasion, who professed to be a minister of God. This man had learned that my father-in-law and his family had promised us protection, and were friendly, and inquiring into the work; and knowing that if he could get him turned against me, my friends in that place would be but few, he visited my father-in-law, and told him falsehoods concerning me of the most shameful nature, which turned the old gentleman and his family so much against us, that they would no longer promise us protection nor believe our doctrines.4
Chapter IV: The Smith Family "Reputation" At Palmyra And Manchester
[Internal footnotes are prefaced with fn; square bracket inserts are also by BHR.]
THE Smith family while living in Palmyra and Manchester are said (1) to have been lazy, shiftless, intemperate and untruthful;fn1 (2) to have opened a "shop" in Palmyra where they sold cakes, pies, root beer, and the like; and that on public occasions, such as the Fourth of July, militia training days, and election days, the elder Smith would load a rude hand-cart, made by himself, with these wares and sally forth to find such patronage as might come to hand;fn2 (3) to have been dishonest and guilty of stealing from their neighbors.fn3
"Rumor's Ten Thousand Tongues"
Joseph Smith, the Prophet, states that shortly after obtaining the plates from which he translated the Book of Mormon: "Rumor with her thousand tongues was all the time employed in circulating falsehoods about my father's family, and myself. If I were to relate a thousandth part of them, it would fill volumes."fn4 A statement one can readily believe when he considers the mass of such rumors that have even found their way into print.
When a very aged man, eighty-two, the Prophet's younger brother, William Smith, in an interview given out about two weeks before his death,fn5 answered the following questions:
Question. "It is said that Joseph and the rest of the family were lazy and indolent."
Answer. "We never heard of such a thing until after Joseph told his vision, and not then, by our friends. Whenever the neighbors wanted a good day's work done they knew where they could get a good hand and they were not particular to take any of the other boys before Joseph either. We cleared sixty acres of the heaviest timber I ever saw. We had a good place. We also had on it from twelve to fifteen hundred sugar trees, and to gather the sap and make sugar molasses from that number of trees was no lazy job. We worked hard to clear our place and the neighbors were a little jealous. If you will figure up how much work it would take to clear sixty acres of heavy timber land, heavier than any here, trees you could not conveniently cut down, you can tell whether we were lazy or not, and Joseph did his share of the work with the rest of the boys. We never knew we were bad folks until Joseph told his vision. We were considered respectable till then, but at once people began to circulate falsehoods and stories in a wonderful way."fn6
Question. "Did not you doubt Joseph's testimony [about the Book of Mormon] sometimes?"
Answer. "No; we all had the most implicit confidence in what he said. He was a truthful boy. Father and mother believed him, why should not the children? I suppose if he had told crooked stories about other things we might have doubted his word about the plates, but Joseph was a truthful boy. That father and mother believed his report and suffered persecution for that belief shows that he was truthful. No, sir, we never doubted his word for one minute."fn7
The evidence relied upon to support the charge of being lazy, shiftless, intemperate and unreliable as to speaking the truth, is from a collection of affidavits made in Palmyra, and Manchester, New York; and in Harmony, Pennsylvania, in the closing months of 1833, and published in E. D. Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 1834. Since then they have been revampedfn8 from time to time by nearly every anti-"Mormon" [even practicing Mormon] writer who has taken in hand the task of enlightening the world respecting "Mormon" origins.
Origin of Adverse Affidavits
These affidavits were collected by one "Doctor" Philastus Hurlburt, under the following circumstances. Hurlburt had been expelled from the "Mormon" church in Kirtland, in June, 1833, for immoralities;fn9 and because he had threatened to take the life of Joseph Smith, Jun., he was placed under bonds "to keep the peace and be of good behavior to all the citizens of the state of Ohio, generally, and to the said Joseph Smith, Jun., in particular." fn10
Hurlburt between these two events,—his excommunication and his trial for threatening the life of Joseph Smith, Jun.,—was sent as the special agent of the anti-"Mormon" party in and about Kirtland, to gather up all that report had to say about the Prophet and his family both in Palmyra, New York, and in Harmony, Pennsylvania. The collection of affidavits in Howe's Mormonism Unveiled was the result. It was simply a matter of "muck raking" on Hurlburt's part. Every idle story, every dark insinuation which at that time could be thought of and unearthed was pressed into service to gratify this 1man's personal desire for revenge, and to aid the enemies of the Prophet in their attempt to destroy his influence and overthrow the institution then in process of such remarkable development. If the vindictiveness of sectarian hate be taken into account; if the unreliability of even well-meaning persons be remembered when under the influence of prejudice and contending for what they may regard as orthodoxy in religion, neither the character nor the mass of these affidavits against the Smith family need occasion any surprise. The most trifling circumstance under prejudice and hate is expanded into immense proportions. A single mis-step is converted into confirmed evil habit. Things indifferent or innocent in themselves are garbed in sinister vestments, and made to appear inexpressibly vile.
Truth Outweighs Fiction
Against this large collection of evil report and false interpretation of the character of the Smiths while at Palmyra, prompted as it was by prejudice and collected by malice, the evidence of accomplished fact, and the subsequent lives of the family may be opposed. Take for example the achievements of the family during the few years of their residence in Palmyra. They arrived there penniless, as all admit, with nothing but their bare hands with which to help themselves. Yet in a few years they built two homes in the wilderness; they cleared sixty acres of heavy timber land, and converted it into a tillable farm. In addition to their farming and gardening, they had a sugar orchard of from twelve to fifteen hundred maple trees, from which they gathered the sap and converted it into syrup or sugar. To aid in making the annual payments upon their farm, as well as to help sustain the family until the farm could be made productive, they took an occasional day's work among the neighboring farmers or the Palmyra village folk, sometimes engaged to dig a well, or harvest a field of grain. It is conceded, in the main, that they did all this; and one marvels in the face of it that the charge of laziness and thriftlessness should be made. But the wonder grows when to all this is to be added the stories of the affidavits about the Smith's "money digging" enterprises. "They * * * spent much of their time in digging for money which they pretended was hid in the earth, and to this day large excavations may be seen in the earth not far from their residence, where they used to spend their time digging for hidden treasures."fn11 Truly if the half of what is told in the affidavits about these exploits, usually carried on at night, is to be believed, then it would be utterly impossible to believe the Smiths to be idle or habitually lazy.
As to the charge of intemperance, one may not be altogether sure what act may have given some color for this accusation. It was a time when drinking hard cider and even spirits was quite general in that locality, and accounted no great harm except when malice prompted some spiteful allusion to a practice so common. But of this one may be assured, that the evil never ripened into habits with the Smith family; for intemperance never claimed a victim among the Smiths, either the father or any of his sons; and within two years after leaving Palmyra, viz., in 1833, it was Joseph Smith, Jun., who gave to the Church of the Latter-day Saints, and to the world, a temperance law that has been the admiration of all who have become acquainted with it. It has rescued thousands from the evils of intemperance, and restrained tens of thousands from contracting intemperate habits, because it enjoins upon the membership of the church, as the law of God, total abstinence from wines and strong drinks. This law is known as "The Word of Wisdom;"fn12 and is not likely to be the product of a man or a family given to habitual intemperance.
Charges of exaggeration and untruthfulness are so easy to make, especially when associated with the announcement of spiritual experiences and religious truths that the world considers unorthodox, that one scarcely need stop to ascertain the grounds of them. It will be enough here to say that the Smith family spent many years with the people gathered together by the ministry of their son Joseph and his associates; and everywhere as a family they won and held the esteem of their people, and this through evil and good report. This is not done by people who are untruthful, who exaggerate, or who are insincere. The well known industry, frugality, honesty, charity, integrity, sobriety and truthfulness, of the Smith family through all their subsequent career, after leaving Palmyra, and of which thousands were witnesses, and which has crystalized into a tradition in the church, is a complete refutation of the idle rumors and trumped up charges of envious neighbors in and about Manchester and Palmyra.
Petty Employments Charged
The second charge against the Smiths is that while at Palmyra "they opened a small shop" and sold cakes, pies, root beer and the like; and that on certain public occasions the elder Smith sold such wares in the streets from a handcart. There is nothing dishonorable in itself in this, even had they engaged in such an occupation. Still it was put forth with evident intention of making the family appear contemptible by representing that its occupations were petty and mean.
"It can never be," said one of old, "that your spirit is generous and noble while you are engaged in petty, mean employments; no more than you can be abject and meanspirited while your actions are honorable and glorious. Whatever be the pursuits of men, their sentiments must necessarily be similar."fn13 One may see a conscious recognition of this truth in the thought of those who would make it appear that the Smiths engaged in "petty, mean employments."
Inventive malice also adds the detail that the "clerkship" of the line of trade above described was assigned to Joseph Smith, Jun.; that here he "learned his first lessons in commercial and monetary science;" and that the boys of Palmyra delighted in "obtaining the valuable goods entrusted to Joseph's clerkship, in exchange for worthless pewter imitation two shilling pieces!"fn14 Inquiry among descendants of the Smith family, and wide knowledge of that which is published in relation to them, besides access to letters and papers and personal journals that have never been published, bearing upon their lives and character, fails to disclose any scrap of evidence that the Smiths at Palmyra or elsewhere ever engaged in or followed any such petty employment as is here described; and had it been part of the family's experience in the days of their misfortunes, it is not likely that it would have escaped mention; especially when it is remembered how frank the members of the family have ever been in detailing their experiences, as well those that relate to their misfortunes and humility, as those that would be esteemed as being to their advantage.
Pomeroy Tucker Vender Of Idle Tales
Pomeroy Tucker was the first to put forth this charge; and his work was published in 1867. He pretends to speak from personal knowledge of the matter, being a resident of Palmyra while the Smiths lived in that vicinity; and an employee on the Wayne Signal during the time the Book of Mormon was being printed in the job department of that publishing establishment; thus frequently being thrown in contact with the Smiths. One thing, however, very seriously mitigates against the probability of Mr. Tucker's story, besides the absolute silence of the Smith family. It has already been recounted in these pages that in 1833 a large collection of affidavits was made by "Doctor" Philastus Hurlburt as the agent of an anti-"Mormon" party in Kirtland, Ohio, who was intensely bitter in its hatred of all things "Mormon," and was determined to destroy both Joseph Smith and the church. Hurlburt was a worthy agent of such principals, and all that malice could suggest or hatred invent was combined in that effort to scrape together everything derogatory to the character of the Smith family. This was only two years after the departure of the Smiths from the neighborhood of Palmyra, when very many were living there who could remember every circumstance derogatory to their character, injurious to their reputation, or humiliating in their career. Yet in all the fifteen separate and independent affidavits collected in Palmyra in 1833 by Hurlburt, and in the affidavit signed conjointly by 68 people of Palmyra and vicinity, derogatory to the Smiths, not a syllable is uttered respecting the "cake and beer shop," or the "peddling" of such wares in the street on public occasions mentioned with such pomp of circumstance by Pomeroy Tucker. The silence of all the affidavits collected in 1833, and of all the anti-"Mormon" writers up to Tucker in 1867, throws strong suspicions of improbability upon his pretended statement of fact. Malice invented the story, and sectarian prejudice accepted the falsehood for truth.
The third charge, viz, that the Smith family was dishonest and preyed upon their neighbors by stealing from them is not only malicious, but he who first promulgated the charge gives evidence by the very manner in which he sets forth the accusation that he is conscious that the charge is not true. Tucker was the first to make the allegation, and he does it in the following terms:
"Existing as they did from year to year in this thriftless manner, with seemingly inadequate visible means or habits of profitable industry for their respectable livelihood, it is not at all to be wondered at that the suspicions of some good people in the community were apt to be turned toward them, especially in view of the frequently occurring nocturnal depredations and thefts in the neighborhood. On these accounts the inhabitants came to observe more than their former vigilance in the care of their sheepfolds, hencoops, smoke-houses, pork-barrels, and the like domestic interests; though it is not within the remembrance of the writer, who in this designedly impartial narrative would 'nothing extenuate nor aught set down in malice,' if the popular inferences in this matter were ever sustained by judicial investigation. It is appropriate to remark, however, that the truth of history, no less than proper deference to the recollections of many living witnesses in Palmyra and its vicinity, demand that these reminiscences should be given, intimately blended as they are with the purpose in hand, to present before the public a candid and authentic account of the origin, rise, and progress of Mormonism, from its first foundation."fn15
There is nothing more cowardly than a vicious insinuation. It is the character-assassins' readiest and deadliest weapon. It can be used in the absence of proof, and be made to calumniate as readily the innocent as the guilty. It can ally itself so easily with hypocrisy, as it does in the above quotation from Tucker, and pretend to act from the purest of motives, in the interest even of impartial narrative, that "would nothing set down in malice!"
It is here invoked by Tucker in the interest of the "truth of history," the most sacred altar upon which truth's incense burns! But "it is not within the remembrance of the writer (Tucker) * * * if the popular inference in this matter were ever sustained by judicial investigation." That is, the Smiths were never charged with the petty thefts insinuated by Tucker. Notwithstanding all the vigilance of a neighborhood deeply prejudiced against them, and disposed to magnify every peculiarity of temperament or error of conduct, and amid "frequently occurring nocturnal depredations and thefts in the neighborhood"—yet the people of Palmyra prejudiced and watchful as they were, could never find justification for even making a charge against the Smiths that went to "judicial investigation!" Then why is the charge made against them in a pretended historical treatise that boasts itself "a candid and authentic account of the origin, rise, and progress of Mormonism?"
The Truth Of History
It is justified on the ground "that the truth of history, no less than proper deference to the recollection of many living witnesses in Palmyra and its vicinity, demanded that these reminiscences should be given, intimately blended as they are with the purpose in hand, to present before the public a candid account of the origin, rise and progress of Mormonism." But the "truth of history," even as represented by Tucker, raised this charge against the Smith family no higher than "popular inferences." And he is extremely unfortunate in his "deference to the recollections of many living witnesses in Palmyra" on the subject, since, when in 1833 those people were appealed to by Hurlburt, and they made so many affidavits against the Smiths singly and conjointly, some eighty in all, there was not one word said about the Smiths being petty thieves, or of "popular inferences" in relation to such a matter. The fact of silence in the affidavits renders very improbable the vile insinuation of Tucker. And strange to say, on a preceding page, to the one just quoted, Tucker himself gives the Smith family credit for creating the understanding that by means of their "shop" and the "day's works" on the part of the father and elder sons among the "farming people," the elder Smith "was understood to secure a scanty but honest living!"fn16
The charge of petty thieving launched by Tucker is repeated with increasing assurance by many writers who follow him; but it has no force beyond what Tucker's authority gives it. Bring ever so many mirrors into a room where a farthing rush light is burning, you shall not increase the light—you merely reflect what is already there—a single farthing rush light, you make it no more, though you reflect it an hundred times.
1. See affidavits in E. D. Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, 1834, where the statement is frequently repeated, ch. xvii; also Tucker's Origin, Rise and Progress of Mormonism, p. 16, and after them nearly all anti-"Mormon" writers, who repeat their fulminations ad nauseam.
2. Tucker was the first to put out this view of the Smith family, 1867; see Origin, Rise and Progress of Mormonism, pp. 12, 14; and after him Kennedy, Linn and others have repeated it. Even Alexander Stevens in so dignified a work as his History of the United States, 1883, p. 548, following Tucker, repeats in substance what Tucker and Kennedy have published on this subject. He states, however, that, it is not within his recollection if these charges were ever sustained by "judicial investigation." (Tucker, p. 15.)
3. Tucker, 1867, Origin, Rise and Progress of Mormonism, p. 15. Also Kennedy, following Tucker, Early Days of Mormonism, pp. 10, 11.
4. History of the Church, Period I, vol. i, p. 19.
5. He died, November 13, 1893, at Osterdock, Iowa; Saints Herald, vol. xl, p. 787.
6. Zion's Ensign, Independence. Missouri, copied into Deseret News, January 20.1894.
8. Riley, in his Founder of Mormonism, p. 66, discredits them, saying: "No reliance is to be placed in the multiplied affidavits of jealous neighbors, who swore on oath that there was much intoxication among the Smiths; people in those days had the affidavit habit." Riley, however, claims to believe the charge of intemperance on other grounds. Even Kennedy balks a little at some of the rawness of these affidavits. Commenting on a conjoint affidavit signed by sixty-two residents of Palmyra, which he quotes at second hand from Kidder's Mormonism and the Mormons, in which the statement is made that Joseph Smith, Sen., and his son Joseph were, in particular, considered entirely destitute of moral character, and addicted to vicious habits,"—he says: "Some portion of this may have been dictated by envy, malice, or that form of righteousness which controls men at times when their neighbors have been more successful than themselves, but the allegations had a foundation in fact. (Early Days of Mormonsm, p. 17.)
9. History of the Church, Period I, vol. i, pp. 352, 355, and note.
10. Ibid, vol. ii, pp. 47, 49 and note. The trial was held before Mr. Birchard, J. P., in Chardon, Ohio, in April, 1834.
11. Conjoint affidavit of fifty-three citizens of Palmyra and vicinity, Howe's Mormonism Unveiled, first edition, pp. 261-2.
12. The "Word of Wisdom," was given in February, 1833. [SMS: quote deleted but can be found at] (Doctrine and Covenants, sec. lxxxix.)
13. Demosthenes, oration on The Duties of the State.
14. Tucker, Origin, Rise and Progress of Mormonism, p. 14.
15. Origin, Rise and Progress of Mormonism, by Pomeroy Tucker, p. 15.
16. Origin, Rise and Progress of Mormonism, by Pomeroy Tucker, p. 12.
His [Joseph’s] testimony will arouse the wrath of men, and with unrelenting fury they will pursue him. Slander, outright falsehood and misrepresentation will play havoc with his reputation. Everywhere his name will be held up as evil. Derision will laugh at his message to the world. Ridicule will mock it. On every hand he will be met with the cry of "false prophet! false prophet!" Chains and the dungeon's gloom await him; mobs with murderous hate will assail him again and again; and at the last, while under the protection of the law, and the honor of a great commonwealth pledged for his safety, he will meet martyrdom in the shadow of prison walls!6
How long before we clue in that our sure witness of divine things comes only from God—not scholars, not affidavits, not fallible or hostile “witnesses,” but
the Spirit searcheth all things, yea, the deep things of God. For what man knoweth the things of a man, save the spirit of man which is in him? even so the things of God knoweth no man, but the Spirit of God. Now we have received, not the spirit of the world, but the spirit which is of God; that we might know the things that are freely given to us of God. Which things also we speak, not in the words which man's wisdom teacheth, but which the Holy Ghost teacheth; comparing spiritual things with spiritual. But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God: for they are foolishness unto him: neither can he know them, because they are spiritually discerned. (New Testament | 1 Corinthians 2:10-14)So to those who are becoming “aware” of all the so-called hidden, unsavory “truths” about Joseph Smith, perhaps it is time to give equal time to what God and Joseph had to say about these latter days and not be amongst those
sons of men, whose teeth are spears and arrows, and their tongue a sharp sword. (Old Testament | Psalms 57:4)It is past time (and almost out of time) to cast aside the “wisdom” of the world and actually ask God a few things about Joseph Smith—with real intent to cast aside assumptions, prejudices, dogma, etc. and listen to what God has to reveal about these latter days for He has said:
And [who] bend their tongues like their bow for lies: … (Old Testament | Jeremiah 9:3).
If any of you lack wisdom, let him ask of God, that giveth to all men liberally, and upbraideth not; and it shall be given him. But let him ask in faith, nothing wavering. For he that wavereth is like a wave of the sea driven with the wind and tossed (New Testament | James 1:5-6).And as Paul said:
my speech and my preaching was not with enticing words of man's wisdom, but in demonstration of the Spirit and of power: That your faith should not stand in the wisdom of men, but in the power of God. Howbeit we speak wisdom among them that are perfect: yet not the wisdom of this world, nor of the princes of this world, that come to nought: But we speak the wisdom of God in a mystery, even the hidden wisdom, which God ordained before the world unto our glory: Which none of the princes of this world knew: for had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory. (New Testament | 1 Corinthians 2:4-8)And as Joseph said:
You don't know me; you never knew my heart. No man knows my history. [Even those who claim to have written it!] I cannot tell it: I shall never undertake it. I don't blame any one for not believing my history. If I had not experienced what I have, I could not have believed it myself. … ¶ I cannot lie down until all my work is finished. I never think any evil, nor do anything to the harm of my fellow-man. When I am called by the trump of the archangel and weighed in the balance, you will all know me then. I add no more. God bless you all. Amen.7Thus, let our witness concerning the work and mission of Joseph Smith come from God, so it will not be said of us at the last day:
This is thy lot, the portion of thy measures from me, saith the LORD; because thou hast forgotten me, and trusted in falsehood (Old Testament | Jeremiah 13:25).-------------------------------------/
Note: If one’s biases against Joseph are so strong that one will not ask of God—with real intent to accept His wisdom—then divine witness will probably be delayed, until it is perhaps too late.
1. Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, [TPJS] selected and arranged by Joseph Fielding Smith [Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1976], p. 270.
2. First Vision: see Pearl of Great Price | Joseph Smith History 1:1-20.
3. B. H. Roberts, A Comprehensive History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 6 vols. [Salt Lake City: Deseret News Press, 1930], 1: 96-97; Statement in Wentworth Letter, History of the Church, Period I, vol. iv, p. 538.)
4. Joseph Smith, History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 7 vols., introduction and notes by B. H. Roberts [Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1932-1951], 1: 108.
5.Chapter IV: Smith family reputation: B. H. Roberts, A Comprehensive History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 6 vols. [Salt Lake City: Deseret News Press, 1930], 1:39-48.
6. Ibid. 1:58.
7. Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, selected and arranged by Joseph Fielding Smith [Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1976], 361-2. April 7, 1844. (T&S Aug. 15, 1844.)